Nestled on the northern end of a peninsula, San Francisco lies majestically between the Pacific Ocean and San Francisco Bay. Its large natural harbor has made it one of the most utilized and revered ports in the Pacific and has created a hub not only for major businesses but also a convergence of many cultures. Its founding and subsequent growth were met with many challenges, but today, this great city has persevered to become one of the most recognized cities in the world.
The Area's Early History
While many people place San Francisco's origins to the middle of the 16th century, historians believe that its beginnings date as far back as 3000 BC with archaeological evidence that places the first human inhabitants in the area. The area's first foreign discovery, however, is often recognized during the 1542 expedition of Spanish explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo. On this voyage, Cabrillo sailed along the Pacific Ocean from Baja California north to the Russian River in Northern California, which he then named "Nueva California", or New California. Subsequent voyages by the likes of English sea captain Sir Francis Drake and Portuguese explorer Sebastian Rodríguez Cermeño helped to discover new parts of New California.
San Francisco Bay itself was seemingly and surprisingly left undiscovered during many of these explorations leaving many to wonder if the city's infamous fog and weather played a part. Over two hundred years after the first explorers discovered California's northern regions, the city was first seen on November 2, 1769, by Spanish explorer Gaspar de Portola.
San Francisco's Beginnings
Once discovered, San Francisco's first actual settlement took place in 1776 when New-Spanish explorer Juan Bautista de Anza led a small group over 1,200 miles to set up a mission along San Francisco Bay. By the early 19th century, the Mission San Francisco de Asis was established with over 1,000 new residents. After Mexico declared its independence from Spain in 1821, the mission fell into decline and U.S. Navy captain James B. Montgomery staked the city's claim on July 9, 1846.
Soon after, the famed California Gold Rush took hold when gold was discovered at Sutter's Fort on January 14, 1848. This discovery set off a frenzy throughout the region as "forty-niners" tore through the area in droves trying to find gold. During the next decade, prominent businessmen seized the opportunity to further develop San Francisco and its surroundings by establishing the Central Pacific Railroad. This business brought thousands of men, and eventually their families, from China to work on the railroads. San Francisco's iconic Chinatown was quickly settled and soon became the largest Chinese population to exist outside of Asia.
The financial boom of the times not only increased the city's population, it also advanced the way people moved throughout the city. Inspired to move people up and down the city's famed hills safely, Andrew Hallidie invented the iconic cable car system in 1873. The city and the busy port seemed to know no bounds as both quickly thrived. In the early 20th century, however, a catastrophe struck with the devastating earthquake of 1906. Much of the city's infrastructure was destroyed and therefore left almost half a million residents homeless. The resilience of the city was tested and prevailed as they worked together to rebuild and become even stronger.
The completion of both the Golden Gate Bridge and the Bay Bridge in the 1930's further enhanced the city and its access to Northern California and beyond. The city became famous for its beauty and place in history as the "beatnik" generation took hold in the 1950's and served as the birthplace of the "hippie movement" and the Summer of Love in 1967. This open-arms sentiment has become an ongoing theme throughout San Francisco's long history, from the influx of Chinese settlers to the very first Gay Pride Parade in 1970.
Today, San Francisco stands as a paradigm of discovery and achievement and is a true testament to the American dream. Millions of visitors find their way to San Francisco each year to experience its storied history and natural beauty. For those who wish to explore the many facets of the city and learn about this vibrant city, Bay Lights Charters can help with a customized tour of San Francisco Bay. Please contact us for more information.